January 1959 Revolutionary force led by Fidel Castro takes control of Cuba.

1959-1960 The Castro government seizes virtually all private property owned in Cuba.† Compensation for these expropriated properties of U.S. citizens and corporations has never been made or offered as required under international law.† Cuba has made settlements with all countries except the United States.

October 1960 U.S. government imposes a partial trade embargo against Cuba.

January 1961

Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 passed in response to Cuban government confiscation without compensation of U. S. properties.

February 1962

President Kennedy applies 1917 Trading With The Enemy Act to impose a total trade embargo on Cuba.

The U.S. government freezes $162 million of Cuban assets in the United States (compared to approximately $1.8 billion of U.S. property seized by Cuba without compensation in 1959 and 1960).

February 1963 Travel to Cuba by U.S. citizens is prohibited.

July 1963 The U.S. government freezes all Cuban-owned assets in the U.S. (approximately $180 million).

October 1964 Congress amends the Foreign Claims Settlement Act to establish a Cuban Claims Program, under which the Foreign Claims Settlement Commission is given authority to adjudicate the validity and amount of claims by U.S. nationals against the Cuban government.

1966-1972 The Foreign Claims Settlement Commission receives 8,816 claims, of which 87% are from individual U.S. citizens.† The Cuban Claims Program certifies 5,911 of these claims, totaling $1.8 billion.†† Individual claimants represented 5,013 claims or 85% of the total certified claims.

June 1975 Joint Corporate Committee on Cuban Claims officially organized to support the rights of certified claimants.

February 1976 Under a new constitution, Castro becomes head of the government as† President of the Council of Ministers, commander of the armed forces, and First Secretary of the communist party.† The Communist Party of Cuba (PCC) is institutionalized within the formal governmental structure.†

March 1977 U.S. government lifts prohibition on travel to Cuba and allows U.S. citizens to spend $100 on Cuban goods during their visits.

September 1977 The United States and Cuba open interests sections in each otherís capitals.

July 1978 State Department issues GIST statement... defined as the essence of: "The embargo will not be ended, however, until the claims of U.S. citizens and corporations for losses suffered though expropriations are resolved".
April 1982 The U.S. government effectively bans travel to Cuba by prohibiting monetary expenditures in Cuba by U.S. citizens.

August 1988 President Reagan signs a trade act ending licensing requirements for importing recordings, printed material, and other media from Cuba.

November 1989 The Treasury Department limits travel-related expenses of U.S. citizens traveling to Cuba at $100 per day.

December 1991 The Soviet Union terminates economic subsidies to Cuba worth approximately $6 billion annually.

October 1992 Congress passes the Cuban Democracy Act, which prohibits foreign-based subsidiaries of U.S. companies from trading with Cuba.

February 1995 State Department Buyer Beware Cable warning foreign governments of the possible sale of U.S property held by the Cuban government.

February 1996


Cuban MiGs shoot down two unarmed Brothers to the Rescue planes over international waters.
March 1996 President Clinton signs the Cuban Liberty and Democratic Solidarity Act (Libertad) , also known as the Libertad Act.

February 1997


Families of the Brothers to the Rescue pilots are awarded $187 million from the Cuban government for the wrongful deaths of the pilots.
April 1997 The European Union suspends its World Trade Organization (WTO) case against the Libertad Act and other U.S. legislation at great cost to U.S. certified claimants.

May 1998 U.S./EU Agreement signed in London by President Clinton, British Prime Minister Tony Blair and European Commission President Jacques Santer to inhibit and deter investment in all expropriated properties after May 18, 1998.

July 1998 Excerpts from remarks by David W. Wallace, Chairman of the Joint Corporate Committee on Cuban Claims, at a Policy Forum† sponsored by The Institute for U.S.-Cuba Relations outline how this Agreement hurts rather than helps U.S. certified claimants.

February 2001


The U.S. government authorizes the transfer of approximately $90 million in frozen Cuban assets to the families of the three Brothers to the Rescue pilots.




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